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Thoracic Outlet Syndrome
Deep constant or intermittent pain and/or numbness of shoulder, arm or hand can be caused by compression of the brachial plexus and/or blood vessels localised at the side of neck. The main causes of this syndrome are trauma, additional rib, poor posture. Common physiotherapy techniques used to treat the syndrome are manual therapy, massage, modalities and special exercises.
Lack or limited movement and strong pain within the shoulder is called frozen shoulder. Responsible for this condition is usually joint capsule which contracts due to inflammatory process. Physiotherapy improves range of motion and reduces pain using manual therapy techniques, kinesio-taping, modalities, massage and exercises.
One of most common problems treated by physiotherapists is back pain. There are many different causes of back pain but the most often are related to disk injury or pain comes from facet joints (little joints connecting vertebrae), irritated, shortened or pulled soft tissues along the spine (muscles, ligaments, capsules, fasciae). Also poor posture cause back pain, forcing muscles to work harder and abusing them. Physiotherapist needs to do very precise examination to find out the cause, to be able to use one of many treatment methods.
Similarly to back pain is caused by blocked facet joints, disk injury and poor posture. Patients with neck pain usually complain on stiffness or limited range of motion in one or more directions. Neck pain is often very sharp. Manual therapy, kinesio-taping and special exercises give the best results in treatment.
Is a pain caused by compression on sciatic nerve which runs from buttock to foot. The common situation is compression on nerve root by herniated disk which produces pain radiating along the nerve. The more compression on the nerve root the further the pain reaches. There are also other causes of sciatica but the one described above happens most often and is usually completely treatable by modern physiotherapy methods based on individualised exercise programme and manual therapy.
Osteoarthritis/ degenerative joint disease
Is the most common condition of the human loco motor system. Degeneration process starts usually due to insufficient nutrition of the joint surfaces, mechanical stress or other joint diseases. That leads to damage of cartilage and deformations of bony structures. Characteristic symptoms are pain, stiffness, limited range of movement and inflammation of soft tissues surrounding the joint (not always). It commonly affects hands, knees, hips, spine and feet but any joint can be affected. Treatment involves mainly exercises and modalities.
Degenerative disk disease
Begins usually after 50 years of age and is a part of a natural dehydration process which starts earlier at the age 25 – 30. The structure of the disk changes and it becomes less flexible and less resistant. Repetitive daily activities or sudden movements such as bending or rotations can lead to small destructions in the disk structure giving local or referred pain. Treatment is based on exercises, manual therapy and may include some changes or adjustments of everyday activities.
Is a headache which cause is localized in neck area. Blocked /inflammed facet joint that is located closely to nerves going towards head can lead to headache. Also poor posture and/or lack of ergonomy of work place can force the neck muscles to work constantly. The muscles become stiff and painful. That kind of pain is usually localized at the back of a head. Treatment involves mainly manual therapy and home exercises.
Is a painful condition with its source in lateral epicondyle of humerus. The degenerative changes of the tendons connected to the lateral epicondyle caused by long term repetitive movements leading to overuse the muscles. The pain is usually local but can also be referred to a wrist. The condition may cause muscle stiffness and limits elbow and wrist movements. Similar condition localized on medial epicondyle is called “Golfer’s elbow” .Manual therapy, kinesio-taping and modalities are very effective treatment methods for tennis/golfer’s elbow.
Is the three-dimensional deformity of the spine. This common disorder starts in very young age and develops slowly leading to deformations of the spine and rib cage giving pressure to the lungs and heart. By muscle imbalance and altered body biomechanics can lead to other musculoskeletal disorders. It is very important to recognise the very first symptoms of scoliosis such as asymmetrical layout of shoulder blades, shoulders, nipples or/and curved spine sideway forming “C” or “S” shape. Physiotherapy treatment started early can stop, reduce or fully treat this condition by exercises.
Sprains and strains
A sprain is an injury that stretches ligaments or tears them causing pain, swelling and inflammation around the joints. The similar injury that pulls and tears the muscle fibres is called a strain. The pain and swelling limits the movement of an affected joint. In some cases surgical intervention is needed but most of the time there is only need for physiotherapy. Treatment involves modalities, manual therapy, kinesio-taping.